BEN KENYON

1. INTRODUCTION

The Avenues of Honour Project has been under way for two years. During the 2004 Treenet Conference, a large undertaking commenced.
The Treenet organisation began to identify each of the Avenues of Honour throughout Australia.
This paper outlines the aims of developing a national database for the Avenues of Honour project.
A sample database has been designed that will hopefully form a base that can be improved upon as the project progresses.

2. KEY OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENTATION

• Outline the structure of the database
• Detail the format that data for the database will be collected
• Detail the procedure that will be used to assess and include submitted data into the database.

3. DATABASE AIMS

• Develop an online database that documents the location and current condition of each tree within an existing or future Avenue of Honour across Australia.
o The database aims to catalogue each tree that has been planted to honour an Australian soldier and detail the location and condition of corresponding plaques.
o Where possible, personal information on the soldier honoured will also be included.
o Generic information on each of the Avenues of Honour will be detailed.

4. DATABASE STRUCTURE

4.1 Database Type

The database is a geospatial database. That is, all of the information contained within the database can be displayed and utilised in a map format through GIS programs such as MapInfo, ArcView or AutoCAD.

It is envisaged that users of the database will utilise and search the information in a similar manner to that of ‘Google Earth’.

5. DATA COLLECTION FIELDS

5.1 Generic Avenue Information

Avenue Name
Planting Date
Designer
Planted By
Avenue Length
Total Trees Present
Total Trees Planned Original
Total Trees Planned Future
Management authority/Contact person
Associated Groups:
Major changes over time
Hazards problems associated with the Avenue
Donations/Participation
Relevant local issues
Photographic Records- Historical

5.2 Human Information

Service Number- with hyperlink to Australian War Memorial
Service
Surname
Given Names
Next of Kin Contact
Historical Information Contact
Photograph

5.3 Plaque Information

Plaque Present
Plaque Location- Ground or Tree
Plaque Orientation- north, south, east, west
Plaque Condition
Plaque Manufacturer
Photograph

5.4 Tree Information

Memorial Avenue/ Avenue of Honour
Tree ID
Genus/Species
Height
DBH
Tree Age
Health
Structure
ULE
Likely works
Location- WGS 84- Universal
Photograph

6. FORMAT OF INFORMATION COLLECTED

6.1 Location

All location information will need to be collected in Latitude/Longitude WGS84 format.

This format is an international format that can be easily converted into local coordinate systems where necessary.

It is also the format that is supported by most commercially available handheld GPS units.

6.2 Photographs

In the final output of the database three photographs will be displayed (where available).
Photographs should all be in JPEG format.

6.3 Data
All data should be submitted in either a Microsoft Access or Microsoft Excel Format.

6.4 Data Collection

Data collected for submission into the database should be collected using the specified fields and supplied definitions. The data collection fields and data collection definitions will be made available online or can be posted to the respondent.

7. EXAMPLE OF THE AVENUES OF HONOUR NATIONAL DATABASE

In the following diagrams, an example of the database structure is shown.  The user selects the avenue by location and is able to access the relevant information contained within the database.

Figure 7: Example of the Avenues of Honour National Database, National view.      Figure 8: Example of the Avenues of Honour National Database, Victoria view

8. DATA COLLECTION DEFINITIONS

8.1 Tree Height

The height of the tree to the nearest meter as estimated from ground level by the assessor on the day of assessment.

8.2 DBH

The estimated total diameter at breast height of the tree trunk at 1.3m from ground level. (Diameter at breast height is generally measured at 1.3m from ground level as an international standard.)
Where there is a multi-stemmed tree the assessor will estimate the ‘TOTAL’ DBH of the stems combined (see 1 opposite)
Total DBH is the DBH for the combined cross sectional area of all of the trunks, not all of the diameters added together.

8.3 Tree Age

• Young (< 10%)
• Semi mature (10 – 30%)
• Mature (30 – 100%)
Tree age is based on the age of the tree when compared to the expected ULE (Useful Life Expectancy) that would be considered typical for the species in the general area. It is not based on the health of the tree.
A Lophostemon confertus (Species ULE in eastern Melbourne = 80 – 100 years) that is 70 years old would be considered mature.

It is possible for a mature tree to exhibit good health and have a high ULE. Example: An 85 year old Lophostemon confertus growing in eastern Melbourne in good health may have a ULE of 10 to 20 years or even 20+ years.

8.3.1 Young

The tree has recently been planted (within the last 3 – 5 years). The trees age is considered to be within the first 10% of the total ULE for that species.
Example: The tree under normal conditions would be expected to be maintained in the landscape for at least another 90% of that species ULE.

8.3.2 Semi mature

The tree has become established in the site and its age is more than 10% but less than 30% of the total ULE for that species. The tree may be approaching its expected mature size. If correctly maintained the specimen will continue to grow to maturity. These specimens may require inclusion in up to 3 formative pruning programs before they reach maturity.

8.3.3 Mature

The trees age is more than 30% of the total ULE for that species. Usually the tree will have reached the expected size for the species in the site.

Note
It is important to note that tree age is not directly related to tree health.
For example: It is possible for a young tree to have very poor health and a ULE of less than 5 years or a mature tree to have good health and a ULE of 20 years +.

8.3.4 Tree Health

• Good

• Fair
• Poor
• Very poor
• Dead

8.3.4.1 Good

The tree is demonstrating good or exceptional growth for the species. The tree should exhibit a full canopy of foliage, and have only minor pest or diseases problems. Foliage colour, size and density should be typical of a healthy specimen of that species. Dead wood, if it exists, will be internal and a normal feature of that species.

8.3.4.2 Fair

The tree is in reasonable condition and growing well for the species. The tree should exhibit an adequate canopy of foliage. There may be some dead wood present in the crown, some grazing by insects or animals may be evident and/or foliage colour, size or density may be atypical for a healthy specimen of that species.

8.3.4.3 Poor

The tree is not growing to its full capacity; extension growth of the laterals may be minimal. The canopy may be thinning or sparse or significant sections of it may be dead. Large amounts of dead wood may be evident throughout the crown. Significant pest and disease problems may be evident or symptoms of stress indicating tree decline.

8.3.4.4 Very Poor

The tree appears to be in a state of decline and the canopy may be very thin and sparse. A significant volume of deadwood may be present in the canopy or pest and disease problems may be causing a severe decline in tree health. Most of the tree canopy is dead or dying although the entire tree is not dead.

8.3.4.5 Dead

The tree is dead.

8.4 Structure

• Good
• Fair
• Poor
• Very poor
• Failed

The definition of structure is the likelihood of the tree to fail under normal conditions. A tree with good structure is highly unlikely to suffer any significant failure while a tree with Poor or Very poor structure is likely or very likely to fail.

8.4.1 Good

The tree has a well-defined and balanced crown. Branch unions appear to be strong, with no defects evident in the trunk or the branches. Major limbs are well defined. The tree would be considered a good example of the species. Probability of significant failure is highly unlikely.

Figure 23 Fair structure

8.4.2     Fair

The tree has some minor problems in the structure of the crown. The crown may be slightly out of balance, and some branch unions or branches may be exhibiting minor structural faults. If the tree is single trunked, this may be on a slight lean or be exhibiting minor defects.  Probability of significant failure is low.

Figure 24 Poor structure

8.4.3           Poor

The tree may have a poorly structured crown. The crown may be unbalanced or exhibit large gaps. Major limbs may not be well defined. Branches may be rubbing or crossing over. Branch unions may be poor or faulty at the point of attachment. The tree may have suffered major root damage. Probability of significant failure is moderate.

Figure 25 Very poor structure

8.4.4        Very Poor

The tree has a poorly structured crown. The crown is unbalanced or exhibits large gaps. Major limbs are not be well defined. Branch unions may be poor or faulty at the point of attachment.  A section of the tree has failed or is in imminent danger of failure. Active failure may be present or failure is probable in the immediate future.

Figure 26 Has failed

8.4.5       Failed

A significant section of the tree or the whole tree has failed.

8.5     Useful Life Expectancy (ULE):

  • Unsafe or 0 years
  • Less than 5 years
  • 5 to 10 years
  • 10 to 20 years
  • 20 to 40 years
  • 40+

Useful life Expectancy is approximately how long a tree can be retained safely and usefully in the landscape providing site conditions remain unchanged and the recommended works are completed.  It is based on the principles of safety and usefulness in the landscape and should not reflect personal opinions on species desirability.

Example:  A semi mature Eucalyptus mannifera may be assessed as

  • Health: Good
  • Structure: Very Poor
  • Works required: Formative pruning
  • ULE: 40+

This indicates that, providing the formative pruning is undertaken, the tree will still contribute to the landscape for more than 40 years.  If the works are not competed then the ULE assessment for that tree will become invalid.

Figure 27 ULE 0 years

8.5.1     Unsafe or Zero years

The tree is considered dangerous in the location and/or no longer provides any amenity value.

Works in this category will generally be “Remove”.

Figure 28 ULE 0 – 5 years

8.5.2        Less than 5 years

The tree under normal circumstances and without extra stress should be safe and have value for a maximum of five years.  The tree will need to be replaced in the short term. Replacement plants should be established as soon as possible if there is sufficient space or consideration should be given to the removal of the tree to facilitate replanting.

Works for this category will often be “Remove”.

Figure 29 ULE 5 – 10 years

8.5.3     5 to 10 years

The tree under normal circumstances and without extra stress should be safe and of value for up to 10 years. Trees in this category may require regular inspections and maintenance particularly if they are large specimens.

Replacement plants should be established in the short term if there is sufficient space or consideration should be given to the removal of the tree to facilitate replanting. However this is a management decision and is beyond the scope of an inventory.

Figure 30 ULE 10 – 20 years

8.5.4     10 to 20 years

The tree under normal circumstances and without extra stress should be safe and of value for up to twenty years.  During this period, regular inspections and maintenance may be required.

Figure 31: ULE 20 – 40 years

8.5.5     20 to 40 years

The tree under normal circumstances and without extra stress should be safe and of value for up to forty years.  During this period, regular inspections and maintenance may be required.

Figure 32 ULE 40+ years

8.6     40+years

The tree under normal circumstances and without extra stress should be safe and of value for more than forty years. During this period, normal inspections and maintenance may be required

8.7     Likely Works

The likely works for a tree within the Avenue of Honour should only be recommended as general guidelines.

Specific recommendations for the each of the trees should not be made.  The recommended works are intended as a guide to formulating planning policies and applications for funding.

Likely works should only be recommended by qualified arborists, who are suitably qualified and experienced.

8.7.1     Irrigation and Formative Pruning

Irrigation and formative pruning is the most likely works that will be required for ‘Young’ and ‘Semi mature’ trees.

8.7.2     Maintenance Pruning

Maintenance pruning would generally be recommended for ‘Mature’ trees.

Maintenance pruning would include (but not be limited to) pruning to maintain standard clearances, deadwood removal and pruning to maintain form and health.

8.7.3     Major remedial Pruning

Major remedial pruning would generally be recommended for trees that have significant structural faults or are in severe decline.  Major remedial pruning would generally require specific assessment by the responsible authority.

8.7.4     Removal and Replacement

Tree removal should only be recommended if the assessed tree cannot be safely retained in the landscape.  Replacement trees will need to be established to maintain the structure and integrity of the Avenue.

8.7.5     None

No immediate works can be identified in the assessed tree.

8.7.6     N/A

A tree requires planting or the tree does not exist.

9.     DATA COLLECTION SHEETS

These data collection sheets and sample spreadsheets will be available for download online on the Treenet website

9.1     Generic Avenue Information

Avenue Name
Planting Date
Avenue Designer
Planted by
Avenue length
Total trees present
Total trees planned originally
Total trees planned in the future
Management Authority/Contact person
Associated Groups
Major changes over time
Hazards or problems associated with the Avenue
Relevant local issues
Photograph details
Example

Photograph DSCN1234

 

Photograph of Memorial

9.2     Individual Assessment Information

Avenue Name
Tree Number
Latitude
Longitude
Genus
Species
Common Name
Height
DBH
Tree Age Young Semi mature Mature
Tree Health Good Fair Poor Very poor Dead
Tree Structure Good Fair Poor Very poor Failed
ULE 0 <5 5-10 10-20 20-40 40+
Likely Works
Tree photograph filename
Service Number
Service
Surname
Given Names
Next of Kin
Historical Information Contact
Photograph Filename
 
Plaque Present? No
Plaque Location Ground Tree Other
Plaque Orientation North South East West
Plaque Condition Good Illegible Damaged Other
Plaque Photograph Filename

9.3     Example

Avenue Name Mickleham Avenue of Honour
Tree Number 019
Latitude -37.569818386
Longitude 144.875331556
Genus Eucalyptus
Species camaldulensis
Common Name River Red Gum
Height 3
DBH 3cm
Tree Age Young Semi mature Mature
Tree Health Good Fair Poor Very poor Dead
Tree Structure Good Fair Poor Very poor Failed
ULE 0 <5 5-10 10-20 20-40 40+
Likely Works
Tree photograph filename 019.jpg
Service Number VX57549
Service Army
Surname Lloyd
Given Names William John
Next of Kin Unavailable
Historical Information Contact Unavailable
Photograph Filename 019.jpg
 
Plaque Present? No
Plaque Location Ground Tree Other
Plaque Orientation North South East West
Plaque Condition Good Illegible Damaged Other
Plaque Photograph Filename 019.jpg

10.   DATA SUBMISSION ASSESSMENT

Data for the national database can be collected by anyone.  The information collected will be submitted to

Treenet and assessed for accuracy and validity.

The following questionnaires have been developed to assist with the assessment of the information submitted.

10.1   Generic Avenue Information

Name and Contact Details of the person who collated the requested information

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________

Is there a reference source for the information collected?   Yes      /           No

If yes please detail

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________

10.2   Human Information

Does the person/next of kin provide Treenet with permission to display their personal details in the

National Avenue of Honour Database? Yes           /           No

If yes please provide an original copy of written authority.

Name and Contact details of the person who collated the personal information on the service person honoured

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________

Name and contact details of the next of kin of the person honoured

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________

Was a reference used to obtain the personal information collated?             Yes/No

If yes please detail.

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________

10.3   Plaque Information

Name and contact details of the person who collated the information of the plaque dedicated to the service person honoured.

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________

Was a reference used to collate the information collected on the dedicated plaque?                                                                                                   Yes/No

If yes please detail

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________

10.4   Tree Information

The name and contact details of the person who collected the information on the trees assessed

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________

Does the person who collected the information have formal Arboricultural qualifications?                                                                               Yes/No

If yes please include a brief CV/Resume to assist

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________

10.5   Location Information

Was the location of the trees collected using GPS?                                   Yes/No

If no, please specify how the information was collected.

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________

If yes

What is the brand and model number of the GPS that was used?

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________

What is the specified accuracy of the GPS that was used?